The Science Behind UV Bonding

The process of UV bonding is a relatively new one but one that is growing in popularity. It has some fantastic advantages over other methods, including the finished appearance and the ease of the process.

In this post we’re going to look at the ins-and-outs of UV bonded glass, discussing how it works, where it is most commonly used and why so many people are choosing it as their preferred method.

What is UV Bonding?

UV bonding is a way of joining two pieces of glass together. It uses a special adhesive or glue that ‘sticks’ the glass together and eliminates the need for extra screws, bolts or fixings.  The ultraviolet element of the name comes from the curing process; once the special adhesive is in place, it is then ‘cured’ under a UV bonding light.

This adhesive process is popular because it is incredibly secure. In fact, it often leaves a join that is stronger than the glass itself. It is also attractive: the adhesive is transparent, and should appear almost invisible on the panes of glass.

UV bonding is one of the most popular ways to bond glass. A predominant reason for this is down to the durability of the bond: it is so strong, and it lasts such a long time. Of course another reason is the sleek finish it gives. It is easy to control and should always create a clean, clear join.

The final reason it is so popular is that the UV bonding process has many versatile uses, not just for joining glass to glass.

How Does UV Bonding Work?

UV light bonding glue is sometimes referred to as liquid glue. This is because it stays liquid for prolonged periods, and is stable at room temperature. In fact the only thing that can ‘activate’ it and make it dry to form a bond is exposure to a UV bonding light.

This process works because of the intensity of UV light. When a UV glass bonding light is shone on the adhesive, it creates a chemical reaction within the glue. This causes the adhesive to harden, which in turn forms the bond. This process is called ‘curing’.

The whole procedure can be completed very quickly. Applying the light for as little as 3 seconds can create a durable, robust bond that lasts. Alternatively, you can leave it for longer to make it more secure, or even apply a second layer to create an unbreakable bond. You may also need to leave it on longer depending on the wattage of the UV glass bonding lamp  you use and the thickness of the glass.

The stability of the compound and the specific conditions needed for the UV liquid glue to cure, makes this technique much simpler and more reliable than other methods such as drying. In other bonding methods, the adhesive is cured by evaporation. This process is massively unpredictable and can be easily affected by a number of variables, including temperature and humidity.

In comparison, UV bonding allows you complete control of the curing from start to finish. This is one of the reasons it gives such good results.

The speed and the control that the process allows also means that it gives very consistent results. When the best results are strong, stable and sleek joins that stay secure and look great, this consistency is a brilliant bonus. It’s a technique that promises optimum quality. You can always trust your UV bonded glass will last a long time and look lovely for the entire duration of its life.

What is UV Bonded Glass Used for?

Most types of glass can be bonded using a UV bonding liquid. The only real requirement necessary for the glass is that the surface of it is very flat, very bright and very polished. If these conditions are met, you should be able to create a formidable, unbreakable bond using UV bonding liquid glue.

And it doesn’t just work to secure glass against glass. You can also use this technique to attach wood, plastic and even metal parts such as legs, hinges or handles to glass as well.

The crystal clear, robust and strong joins make it well suited to the construction of items that are more often seen to be made from wood, fixed with durable screws.  For example the UV technique is commonly used in the creation of glass furniture from small to large scale items such as:

  • Coffee tables or desks
  • Display cabinets
  • Shelving units

It is also perfect for use in making modern, minimalist and stylish accessories such as umbrella stands, magazine racks and ornaments.

Of course, you don’t have to be constrained by the clear finish that UV bonding provides either. The adhesive makes a completely flush surface that can be sanded down and covered, decorated or even painted with ease. There is nothing stopping you from giving a bonded surface a beautiful, unique, decorated look.  

This technique excels in the construction of glass display cabinets and trophy cabinets. The transparent joins allow the maximum possible light to get in, ensuring display items are always shown to their best advantage. Even better, the clean lines only enhance the intricacies of the items contained within. When combined with an opaque base or back to the case, these cases can also provide a gentle diffusion of natural light which will further flatter their contents.

In the creation of display cabinets, you can also use this process to attach locks, hinges and runners. Again, you can trust in the security that these additions will provide when they’re attached to the cabinet by UV bonding: impossible to remove without breaking the glass, they keep any contents safe and secure, while displaying them clearly and attractively..

The final main use for UV glass bonding is in architecture. The strength of the bonds mean they are well suited for use in the construction of staircases, balconies and doors. Designed in glass, these features can enhance any interior and turn it into a modern, stylish space.

Using UV activated adhesive, is one of the most popular ways to bond glass. With it’s long life and clean look, we suspect you will now see why so many people choose it.

Glass Balustrades: A Useful Guide

You may not be aware of it, but you probably see glass balustrades way more frequently than you realise. They are actually a common architectural feature, protecting people on staircases or at heights.

But the word ‘balustrade’ may seem quite intimidating and definitely suggests a complicated design item. To clear this up, we’ve put together this post to help you get to grips with what a glass balustrade is, where they can be used and why you would want to use them.

What is a Glass Balustrade?

The word ’balustrade’ may seem unusual and formal, but is a technical term for something that is almost everywhere.  It is basically defined as a rail that is supported by pillars, posts or panels (which are technically called balusters). This means that railings, banisters and handrails are actually all types of balustrades. And these really are common.

Obviously, a glass balustrade in particular is one that features glass, usually in the supports beneath the rail, but not exclusively.

There are two primary types of glass balustrade. Most commonly, glass panels can be used to fill the space between posts and rails, but they can also be left to stand alone. That leaves the edge of the panels to form the ‘railing’.

These ‘freestanding’ balustrades are called ‘structural’ or ‘cantilever’ and are perfect when you don’t want a handrail and prefer a completely clear surface. Choosing a structural balustrade has a lot of visual benefits, but it will also have big impact on the type of glass that you can use.

What type of glass is used for balustrades?

As one of the main purposes of balustrades is to ensure safety, there are quite a few recommendations around what glass should be used to construct them.

Firstly, you can only use toughened or tempered glass. This means it has been treated with extreme heat in order to strengthen it. This robust, safety glass can be up to five times stronger than glass that is untreated. The glass tempering process should also ensure that if it breaks, it shatters into smaller granular pieces, rather than sharper, ragged shards.

Laminated glass can also be used for balustrades as it provides extra protection from breaking. Laminated glass has a very thin layer of plastic sandwiched between two slim panes of glass. Though you can’t see this wafer-thin sheet of plastic, it helps the glass hold together if it gets broken.

Another big constraint on balustrade design, is how thick should a glass balustrade be? In most cases, around 10mm thickness is needed for balustrades which also have posts supporting them and at least 15mm thickness is needed when used for structural or cantilever balustrades. Regardless of the thickness, any glass will always need to be toughened or laminated.

Both types of panels can be finished in a range of ways. For maximum clarity, space and light, they can be left clear. Alternatively, they can be tinted with colour, frosted or sandblasted glass can also be used to incorporate logos or a bespoke design.

A lot of specifics around the type of glass you need, will depend on where it’s being used and the structure around it, so it always advisable to check the needs of each particular project.

Where Can Glass Balustrades be Used?

Almost anywhere you want a glass balustrade, you can find one to fit. Whether it’s internal or external you can choose to use:

  • For stairs, to bring safety and space to your interior
  • Around decking or partitioning off garden space
  • On a balcony, to provide uninterrupted views across the landscape
  • Around a patio area, to free your garden from harsh lines
  • As a pool surround to help you feel freedom while you swim

Benefits of Glass Balustrades

Glass balustrades are a highly popular choice for both internal and external design. This isn’t surprising when you see how many benefits they have!


The thick, tempered glass commonly used in balustrades is incredibly safe. Treated to make it almost as strong as steel, this glass hardly ever breaks making it a great choice for family homes or busy offices.

Maximise light and space

The transparency of glass brings a whole range of design benefits to a building. Being able to see straight through a space will maximise its size, making it feel roomier and more open. It will also allow light to flood in, which helps the room feel even bigger and brighter!

Easy to clean

Wide, smooth panes of glass can be swiped with a soft cloth and cleaned in minutes. Compared to the intricate designs you find on balustrades made from wood or metal, which require fiddly dusting, polishing and primping, the smooth surface of glass is a dream to maintain. Our glass cleaning top tips blog post should also help.


As well as being secure and safe in the short term, glass balustrades age brilliantly too. They won’t warp or rot and can withstand exposure to extreme elements. They can’t be infested by pests or gnawed by pets. They won’t fade in colour, or age in texture and if maintained correctly, will look sharp and smart for their entire life.


You might not realise it, but glass is a really environmentally-friendly material. Its durability means it lasts for ages and won’t need major updates or modifications in its long life. Plus, if the unthinkable happens and you decide to remove the glass, this material is often recyclable and easy to dispose of!

Look amazing!

Obviously, the biggest benefit to glass balustrades is their beauty. Their stylish simplicity will match brilliantly with a minimalist, modern decor but they are also incredibly versatile. Their ability to maximise space can help to open up dark, dingy spaces into bright, beautiful ones.

Despite having a rather daunting name, balustrades are actually all around you, and feature in almost all buildings with two or more floors at least once. When picking a material to make them from, glass is not just a stylish choice, but a smart one too.

You can install glass balustrades in a range of places, happy in the knowledge that they are safe, secure and long-lasting. So, if you’re thinking of updating or improving the look of your property, re-think your existing balustrades and give glass a go!

What is Glass Sandblasting?

Here at KLG, we’ve been asked on more than one occasion “what is frosted glass made of?” And well, the answer’s in the question; it’s plain old glass. But the difference is that it’s glass that’s been sandblasted.

“Sandblasting” is one of those terms that pretty much is what it sounds like. It’s the process of blasting sand particles at high speed to abrade a smooth surface. So what is sandblasting used for? Well it can be used to etch patterns onto a surface, to clean certain metals, and when used with glass, sandblasting takes the clarity out of the surface and makes it opaque.

You’ll have probably seen sandblasted glass windows in bathrooms and front doors where the privacy of opaque (or ‘frosted’) glass is useful. But at KLG, we’ve taken sandblasted glass designs to a whole new level, from matching wallpaper patterns to bonded glass trophies and everything in between.

How is Sandblasting Done?

The concept is fairly straightforward, but what is the process of sandblasting? It basically involves the sand particles being propelled along a tube on a high-speed current of air. The sand shoots through a nozzle at the end of the tube, hitting the glass and corroding the surface, leaving a milky white opaque look to it. Different etching effects are obtained by varying the amount of sand used, the speed of the jet and the nozzle at the end of the tube.

The amazing patterns and detail you often see in sandblasted panes is created by simply ‘masking off’ the areas of the glass you don’t want affected by the sand with an adhesive vinyl. The masked off areas are not susceptible to the sand blasting, so remain crystal clear.

There are two main approaches to how sandblasting works: suction/syphoning, and pressure. The suction method simply sucks the sand into the high-speed air stream, whereas the pressure system uses a pressurized container to shoot the sand through the nozzle. Generally, pressure set ups are more powerful and so produce results more quickly, but they also tend to be more expensive.

In addition to the standard blast hose and nozzle jet (which looks a little bit like a heavy duty pressure hose), you can also use a blast cabinet. Cabinets are great because all the sand particles are contained inside so there is less to clean up, and you don’t generally need to wear protective clothing as you’re operating the machinery in a sealed box. However, there are obviously limits to what you can fit inside one!

And it’s not just sand that’s used either. There are lots of other abrasive materials that can be used for blasting, such as crushed walnut or coconut shells, and actually this is often preferable as silica sand (the traditional medium) can cause silicosis of the lung.

There are other ways in which to etch glass, which involve using acids and creams, but as these techniques involve extremely hazardous materials and don’t offer the same range in technique or effect, sandblasting is now the more common approach.

Where Can You Use Frosted Glass?

Although frosted glass works brilliantly in bathrooms for privacy in shower screens, windows and glass doors, it can be used in lots of other places around the home too. Here are a few examples to get you thinking:

  • Mirrors can be sandblasted on the back when being fitted with lighting or have patterns sandblasted onto the front.
  • Balustrades and partitions look great with patterns sandblasted onto them (we can even match these to your wallpaper design).
  • Doors with glass panes in double glazing units can be sandblasted for privacy or patterned for decoration. You could even have the name of your house etched into a window above your front door.

And it’s not just around the home that frosted glass can be useful; having logos or motifs etched onto doors, windows, table tops and signage can be a wonderful and practical addition to the workplace as well.

Sandblasted Glass Designs

We mentioned earlier how the patterns on frosted glass are achieved by masking off the areas that need to remain clear with adhesive vinyl. Once you appreciate that the vinyl can be cut to order, you begin to realise the possibilities for designs are practically endless! A quick search on Pinterest will bring up a huge range of beautiful sandblasted images, some bold and simple, some intricate and sculptural.

Contemporary trends lean towards complex patterns and varied gradations of depth in the glass to create a shading effect and some amazing 3D designs. The more intricate a design, the more expensive it will be, but here at KLG we have a large range of bespoke patterns and designs available for all budgets that will meet contemporary as well as more traditional tastes.

What is The Best Way to Clean Frosted Glass?

What sandblasting does is create a beautiful effect on the surface of our glass whilst still letting 97% of the light pass through. However, it also leaves an uneven surface that can trap dirt, so regular cleaning can be important.

Most sandblasted glass will have a protective coating applied to it before it leaves the workshop which will help provide you with long-lasting protection against grime and knocks, but it also means you have to choose your cleaning products carefully. If you choose to use a commercial cleaner, ensure that is not alcohol, ammonia or isopropanol based, as these types of cleaner may remove your protective coating.

We’d recommend making your own water-based glass cleaner with some clean, clear water and a little detergent (think a weak bowl of washing up water). Then simply use a soft, lint-free cloth in a consistent, uniform pattern to avoid distracting smears.

Sandblasted glass can offer a really contemporary look to your home or workplace, as well as some very practical privacy. If you’ve not considered using it before, take a look at our range and see if we can inspire you to bring a little extra beauty into your space.

White Glass Splashback Kitchen

Glass Splashbacks – Your Questions Answered

Sitting at the rear of your work surface, glass splashbacks are designed to protect kitchen walls against moisture, heat and food debris when cooking. We’re not just talking about the obvious spots that you clean up after each session either; the tiny water molecules that would otherwise seep into the wall unseen can cause structural damage over time. Due to their protective nature when it comes to moisture and heat, glass splashbacks are ideal for use in bathrooms too.

Glass, naturally, is a fantastic material for splashbacks. The protection offered by a good splashback, can in the long run, save you considerable amounts of money in remedial building costs. And with an endless array of colours and designs available out there, we’re certain you’ll be able to find one to match your kitchen or bathroom.

But not everyone is familiar with what they’re all about, so we at KLG Glass wanted to answer some of your questions. So, let’s explore splashbacks in a little more detail and discover how they’ll benefit your home.

How are Glass Splashbacks Made?

Glass splashbacks are made from toughened glass – or tempered glass as it’s often known. Glass of this sort is heat-treated for additional strength. It’ll therefore be able to absorb a bit more punishment and heat before they break.

Toughened glass is around five times as strong as normal glass, and, since the exterior is at a slightly different tension to the core, it’ll shatter into tiny, blunt fragments as opposed to shards if it’s smashed. This makes it a safe choice as well as a stylish one.

Is it Possible to Cut a Glass Splashback?

While it’s possible to cut into tempered glass, we wouldn’t recommend it. Once your saw passes through a certain point, the tension between the interior and exterior of the glass will instantaneously resolve – causing it to shatter. In other words, do not cut into your splashback. In doing so, you will ruin it! We would always recommend having a tempered glass splashback made-to-measure, this will eliminate any sizing issues and mean that you’ve got exactly the right size for the space it’s designed for.

Can Glass Splashbacks be Used with Gas Hobs?

Glass splashbacks will work perfectly well with gas hobs, provided that there’s a decent gap between your hot pots and pans and the surface of the glass. As a general rule of thumb, this should be 110mm or more, as measured from the rear of the hob. Repeated cycles of heat and cold will cause the glass to crack, so it’s best to keep the distance between the two as wide as possible.

A gas hob also requires plenty of space on either side. So if you’re looking to install one in a chimney breast for example, 300mm from each wall is a recommended minimum when installing alongside a glass splashback, but for best results you should consider 500mm or more. You’ll also need to be sure that there’s a little space in front so that passers-by aren’t at risk of knocking pots and pans off. If you can’t accommodate your hob without a decent gap around the front, back and sides, then it’s time to consider a smaller hob.

How are Glass Splashbacks Fitted?

Before you even think about installing your splashback, you’ll need to measure up. This means deciding exactly where the splashback is going to be by accurately recording where the cupboards, cooker hoods, sockets and switches are going to be fitted . You’ll need to leave a little bit of room for marginal error here, since altering the size of the glass after it’s been tempered will be impossible.

You can fit your splashback in one of two ways.

  • Screw Fixings
  • Adhesive Fixings

If you elect to secure your splashback with screw fixings, then ensure that the appropriate holes are drilled before the glass is tempered. You should also be careful not to over-tighten the screws, as doing so will risk damaging the glass, which could cause it to crack later down the line. Screw fixings will always be visible, and thus you’ll need to position yours carefully if you want to disguise them.

Using adhesive fixings is more straightforward. There is no need to drill any holes, and there will be no visible fixings. Simply apply the silicone based glue to the rear of the splashback and support it against the wall until the adhesive dries. Given that glue produces a seamless, attractive finish, it’s the approach preferred by many homeowners.

Can a Glass Splashback be Fitted Over Tiles?

What if you’d like to combine the look of a tiled splashback with that of a glass one? Or what if you already have a tiled splashback in place, but you’d like to install a glass one over the top?

There are a few things to consider before attaching a glass splashback to a tiled one. Firstly, note that doing so will create a splashback that’s effectively twice the thickness, which will slightly limit the space available and may mean that your splashback protrudes in places.

This will be especially noticeable around your sockets, which might need to be re-fitted. Secondly, you’ll need to ensure that the tiled splashback is adequately fixed to the wall, as the existing glue will effectively bear the weight of two splashbacks.

We would always recommend the complete removal of any previous splashback (tiled or otherwise) before affixing a new one. This will ensure the walls can be fully prepared before fixing and you don’t run any risk of miscalculating sizes.

How do You Clean Glass Splashbacks?

One of the crowning virtues of the glass splashback is that cleaning them is pretty much effortless. It is, after all, a smooth sheet of glass! With that said, a glass splashback will be expected to be subjected to a punishment of a different sort to, say, a window. It might become spattered with grease, oil and limescale so will need slightly different cleaning methods.

Glass splashbacks do not respond well to abrasive cleaners. Don’t use wire wool or brushes with plastic bristles. Instead use a small amount of gentle glass-cleaner and wipe it with a damp cloth. Allow it to dry gradually, out of direct sunlight. This will reduce the appearance of visible streaks.

If you don’t have any window cleaner to hand, then try a combination of water and distilled vinegar. This will break apart grease molecules, allowing your cloth to lift them away. Use a soft, dry cloth to remove any excess and reduce smears.

As with most domestic chores, it’s best to clean your splashback little and often. Don’t allow grease and dirt to accumulate as this will obviously make it more difficult to get good results each time.

In Conclusion

A glass splashback makes a fantastic addition to the kitchen. Coming in a range of different colours, they’re adaptable, easy to maintain, and effective. What better way could there be to protect your kitchen walls from all of those bubbling stews, boiling pastas and sizzling stir-fries?